Understanding Referencing
Referencing: Handy Tips
Why all this fuss about plagiarism?

Referencing Chicago Style: Quick Tips

General information

Common elements: All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title and details of publication.

Author’s names: The author’s name is reversed in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with comma; for instance, Ali Maamiry becomes Maamiry, Ali.

Titles: Titles of books, journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks (“).

Publication information: The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.

Punctuation: In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.


Book Citation

Work of individual author or editor

Elements: Author Surname, Given name(s). Book Title: Subtitle (in italics). Place: Publisher, Year.

Example: Muir, Elizabeth Gillian. A woman's history of the Christian church: two thousand years of female leadership. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2019.

Work of multiple authors or editors

Elements: Author Surname, Given name(s), Author(s) Given name(s) and Surname(s). Book title: Subtitle(in italic). Place: Publisher, Year.

Two Authors or more

Examples: Long, Thomas G, and Leonora Tubbs Tisdale. Teaching preaching as a Christian practice; a new approach to homiletical pedagogy. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2008.

More than four authors

List all the authors in the bibliography and only the first author in notes.

Editor, compiler or translator instead of author

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Editor, compiler or translator in addition to author

Long, Thomas G. The witness of preaching. Translated by Lee Woo Je and Whang Eui Mu. Sŏul-si: Kidokkyo Munsŏ Sŏn'gyohoe, 2006.

Citing chapters in a book

Elements: Author Surname, Given name(s) (chapter author). ” Title: Subtitle (of chapter).” In Book title: Subtitle editor (s) name (s).” (page number(s)). Place: Publisher, Year.

Lienhard, Marc. “Luther, Martin”. In Encyclopedia of Christian Theology volume 2, edited by Jean-Yves Lacoste, 958-964. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Electronic books

If the book is available in more than one format, cite the consulted format. For the book consulted online cite the URL.

Elements: Surname, Given name(s). Title: Subtitle. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example: González, Justo L. Church history: an essential guide. Nashville: Abingdon Press. 1996. Accessed 20 October 2020. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=3&sid=4ddc02b9-2e71-435....


Journal Article Citation

Journal article (Printed)

Elements: Author Surname, Given name(s). “Title: Subtitle.” Journal title (in italic), volume number, Issue number (Year): page range.

Example: Stirling, Ian. “Deep silences: reclaiming silence as a locus of the sacred.” Practical Theology 13, 3 (2020): 259-276.

Journal article (Electronic)

Elements: Author Surname, Given name(s). “Title: Subtitle.” Journal title (in italic), Volume number, Issue number (Year): page number(s). DOI or URL (Accessed date)

Example: Ma, Wonsuk. “The Holy Spirit in Pentecostal Mission: The Shaping of Mission Awareness and Practice.” International Bulletin of Mission Research, 41, 3 (2017): 227-238. Accessed February 28, 2020. doi:10.1177/2396939317704757.


Thesis Or Dissertation Citation

Elements: Surname, Given name(s). “Thesis title: subtitle.” Award. Institution issuing degree, Year.

Example: Evans, Donald C. “"Unity in Faith and Mission": a creative response to tension and diversity within the Uniting Church in Australia (U.C.A.) in New South Wales.” PhD diss. San Francisco Theological Seminary, 1993.


Conference Paper

Elements: Surname, Given name(s) “title: subtitle.” meeting/conference name, Place, date (m/d/y).

Example: Adelman, Rachel. “Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009.



A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or note, but if more information desired can be cited as follows:

Example: Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.